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There are 8 entries in the glossary.
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Term Definition
Complex adaptive systems

CAS are special cases of complex systems which have the ability to ‘learn’ and change based on experience. Classic examples of CAS are as diverse as the stock market, the brain, or the immune system. Lately CAS approaches have been applied to social organizations and communities (Fuller & Morgan, 2000; McMillan, 2004; Stacey, 1996). Another property of adaptive systems is that they have many levels of organization. They have elements or agents which are seen as building blocks. What Holland means by that is that agents on one level become the elements of an agent on a higher level. For example an individual might group with others to build a project team or department etc. Adaptive systems are also constantly reconsidering and reorganizing themselves as they gain experience. “Succeeding generations of organisms will modify and rearrange their tissues throughout the process of evolution. The brain will continually strengthen or weaken myriad connections between its neurons as an individual learns from his or her encounters with the world. […] At some deep fundamental level, […] all these processes of learning, evolution, and adaptation are the same. And one of the fundamental mechanisms of adaptation in any given system is this revision and re-combination of building blocks(Waldrop, 1994, p. 146). (see Annex C for more detailed info)

Complex systemAllen defined a complex system as ‘any system that has within itself a capacity to respond to its environment in more than one way. This essentially means that it is not a mechanical system with a single trajectory, but has some internal possibilities of choice or response that it can bring into play’ (Allen, 2001, p. 150). Another characteristic of the system term used in this research is expressed by Watzlawick: “each part of a system […] is connected to all other parts, in such a manner that a change  in one entity causes a change in all entities and therewith of the whole system” (Watzlawick, Beavin, & Jackson, 2000, p. 119). (see Annex C for more detailed info)
fractalityA new way of looking at the world was made possible with the advent of computers. They could deal with equations which before were believed to result in a un-ordered complete chaos (McMillan, 2004). When these non-linear equations were fed into computers, it turned out that while there was no result no order that fit the traditional mathematical paradigm, the result shows structural patterns – now known as fractals. (see Annex C for more detailed info)
Gestella German word that means ‘skeleton’, frame, shelf and in the variation ‘Untergestell’ chassis and infrastructure – is used by Heidegger to describe the phenomenon of modern technology as that which “captures all what is extant and makes it available through a stock to be put in circulation” (Ciborra & Hanseth, 1998, p16). Applied to universities, Gestell in this sense means all physical and technological infrastructure necessary to fulfil the universities three missions. … And as Ciborra points out, Heidegger defines gestell as the reunion of the organising process, which “overcomes in a felicitous way the dichotomy between the ‘structural’, i.e. static, aspects of infrastructure and their dynamics” (Ciborra & Hanseth, 1998, p.19).
Memeoriginally defined by Richard Dawkins, is "a unit of cultural transmission, or a unit of imitation " (Dawkins, 1976). He is preliminarily interested in cultural expressions rather than abstract concepts, but the field of memetics has been expanded to include ideas and other meta-physical concepts.
mindsetFollowing Faltin (2007), an entrepreneur needs to have a “creative mindset” in contrast to a businessman who needs to deal with creating order, through controlling administrating practices. While the three terms – identity, persona, and mindset – are very closely related, it is useful to have them differentiated: identity is what one construct oneself to be, persona is what one aspires to be, and the mindset is the concrete conceptualized (thematic) model, a representation of a part of the persona.


Personais a psychological concept here meant to describe the ideal identity possible – how one would like to be (Erikson, 1974)
strange attractor‘basin’ of attraction within which a range of similar but non-repeating behaviors take place, behaviors which seem to be magnetically drawn or pulls together within the basin – it has fractal properties. Basically what is described with the strange attractors is that even though the British weather is infamous for its unpredictability, there is a ‘basin’ which gives it the particularly English style of weather, in that it is clearly different and never behaves like the monsoon or desert-like conditions. ‘Although the potential for chaos resides within every system, chaos when it emerges never moves outside the bounds of its strange attractor. […] the chaotic behavior exhibited is not random and unrestrained, it has its own kind of patterning and its own form of determinism(McMillan, 2004, p. 20). (see Annex C for more detailed info)

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